DOCTRINE OF OPERATIVE FACT
The doctrine does not stem from any statute but is based on fair play and equity. It operates when the declaration of a law's unconstitutionality will result in undue burden to those who rely on the law that is presumed to be legal and constitutional until declared otherwise.
It must be noted, however, that the doctrine of operative fact does not make an unconstitutional law valid and constitutional. It merely erases the effects of its unconstitutionality before it is judicially declared as void.